Saturday, November 3, 2012

To shave your penis or not

Shaving on and around the penis is being done by males not just for surgery anymore. Just take a look around the locker room the next time you're at the gym.
Today's males say shaving the pubic hairs on and around their penis is a way to feel fresh and look neat and clean. And cleanly shaving their shaft allows a condom to slip on and off much easier.
These are very good reasons to support shaving the penis indeed.
But - If a male is being totally honest, he'll tell you that he is shaving his pubic hair because it gives his penis the appearance of being larger and it gets a lot more, ahem, attention when it's cleanly shaved.
So for those of you males who are interested - Here are a few things you should know before shaving on and around your penis:
1) Never start shaving your penis unless you're sober and fully alert. The pubic area is much more sensitive than your face, which means it's much easier to hurt yourself, so you want your wits about you.
2) And while penis shaving is pretty easy to do, it does require patience and care.
3) If you're shaving for the first time and have long pubic hairs, trim them with scissors or better yet, a hair trimmer.
4) Take a long, hot shower or bath. This will open the follicles, (the skin depressions from which hair emerges), and soften your naturally coarse pubic hairs to make shaving easier.
5) Pat dry your shaft and surrounding area with a soft, clean towel.
6) Apply a generous amount of a rich lubricant. Allow this to sit for at least 3 minutes before you begin shaving.
7) ALWAYS use a new blade in your razor.
Note: It's rumored that if you start shaving your general pubic area, testicles, and inner thighs, you'll get the best optical illusion, er, affect of a larger penis.
If you do decide to start shaving your general pubic area and inner thighs while you're at it, make sure another new blade is easily available so you can change blades if your razor starts to drag.
Start by shaving the penis in the direction the hair grows, making sure you shave all sides. If it isn't already erect, gently pull your penis upwards. This will make it easier to shave.
Once you've removed all hairs, go back and shave against the way the hair grows. This will give you the clean, close and smooth shave you're after. But don't shave the same area more than this second time or apply too much pressure. The last thing you want is a razor burn on your penis from shaving.
After shaving your penis, make sure to completely rinse off any traces of the lubricant with warm water. Then rinse with cold water. This will close and calm the follicles and generally tone the skin.
Pat, don't rub, your penis dry with a clean, soft towel.
Some males apply a non stinging astringent after shaving. But to avoid any reaction, just lightly dust your penis with a talc free powder or plain cornstarch.
Ultimately, you want to prevent any kind of irritation to this newly raw skin. So focus on keeping it dry and doing what you can to limit initial friction. If you don't already, wear some loose fitting boxer shorts for a while after shaving.
Many males go as long as possible between shaves in the belief that it will reduce skin irritation. But it's been suggested that the incoming hair stubble is what causes skin problems, so shaving more often is actually better.
Males who are very physically active are usually shaving every other day.
While it's a fact that eventually, after regular shaving, the hairs will become weaker and softer and your penis will remain smoother - If you're not ready, able and willing to follow the regimen outlined here, you probably shouldn't start shaving your penis.
Because anyone will tell you, there's only one thing worse than a hairy penis - And that's a stubbly, scabby penis.
A dry shaver is definitely the safest penis shaver. Do some research and discover the compact shaver that's designed specifically for safely shaving the penis. Reprinted with permission of www.private-shades.com

Sunday, October 21, 2012

No need to be afraid of adult sex toys

Remnants of the free love generation have thankfully survived and in recent years a sexual revival has resurged in the American psyche and bedroom.  This time, however, the participants are a bit wiser and more sophisticated in their sexual exploration.  As a result sex toys, once limited to the margins of society, have come full circle and are now in the mainstream of American living.  Individuals and couples who had never before tried sex toys are now doing so for the first time.  And yet, there still remains some who are scared of introducing sex toys into their life.
This fear comes in large part from a misunderstanding about the uses and ramifications of sex toys.  They imagine that sex toys are limited to extreme versions of fetishism or that somehow sex toys are a means of separating you from your partner.  These two conclusions cannot be farther from the truth.
With the recent explosion in the popular usage of sex toys, manufacturers have created a wide array of products designed to meet the needs and interests of everyone.  While certainly there exists a wide array of S & M products on the market today which those interested in find extremely fun, there also exist a number of products designed for the novice user.
The sex toy industry is completely aware of the desire for many individuals to keep their toys discrete.  As a result, a number of products have been designed with that end in mind.  Vibrators that look exactly like lipstick containers and lotions and lubricants which are described with terms like relaxation rather than more explicit sexual terminology come to mind.  The discrete design and packaging of sexual toys allows even the shyest of individuals to feel comfortable.
With fears allayed as to the nature of sex toys, the next question is about their effects on an existing relationship. Whereas in decades past sex toys were largely limited to single individuals or those focused on a particular area of sex, normally labeled fetishism, recently sex toys have been brought into millions of couples bedrooms.  Sex toys can be a new and exciting way to spice up sex between a couple who has been together for some time.  It can also be an excellent way for couples to explore new areas to find that something works better for them.  In effect, sex toys, rather than creating division between couples, are often a source which brings them together in new and exciting romantic situations. Reprinted with permission of www.private-shades.com

Sunday, October 14, 2012

Genital wart

Genital wart

From Wikipedia, and www.private-shades.com

Genital wart(s)
Classification and external resources

Severe case of genital warts around the anus











Genital warts (or Condylomata acuminata, venereal warts, anal warts and anogenital warts) is a highly contagious sexually transmitted disease caused by some sub-types of human papillomavirus (HPV). It is spread through direct skin-to-skin contact during oral, genital, or anal sex with an infected partner. Warts are the most easily recognized symptom of genital HPV infection, where types 6 and 11 are responsible for 90% of genital warts cases.[1]
Although it is estimated that only a "small percentage"[2] (between 1%[3] and 5%[4]) of those infected with genital HPV develop genital warts, those infected can still transmit the virus. Other types of HPV also cause cervical cancer and probably most anal cancers, however it is important to underline that the types of HPV that cause the overwhelming majority of genital warts are not the same as those that can potentially increase the risk of genital or anal cancer.[5][6][7][8][9] HPV prevalence at any one time has been observed in some studies at 27% over all sexually active people, rising to 45% between the ages of 14 and 19.[1]

Contents

Signs and symptoms

Genital warts often occur in clusters and can be very tiny or can spread into large masses in the genital or penis area. In other cases they look like small stalks. In women they occur on the outside and inside of the vagina, on the opening (cervix) to the womb (uterus), or around (or inside) the anus. They are approximately as prevalent in men but the symptoms may be less obvious. When present, they usually are seen on the tip of the penis. They also may be found on the shaft of the penis, on the scrotum, or around (or inside) the anus. Rarely, genital warts also can develop in the mouth or throat of a person who has had oral sex with an infected person.[10]
The viral particles are able to penetrate the skin and mucosal surfaces through microscopic abrasions in the genital area, which occur during sexual activity. Once cells are invaded by HPV, a latency (quiet) period of months to years (decades) may occur. HPV can last for several years without a symptom.[11]
Having sex with a partner whose HPV infection is latent and demonstrates no outward symptoms still leaves one vulnerable to becoming infected. If an individual has unprotected sex with an infected partner, there is a 70% chance that he or she will also become infected. The immune system eventually clears the virus through interleukins, which recruit interferons, which slow viral replication.[12]

Diagnosis

Micrograph of a genital wart with the characteristic changes (parakeratosis, koilocytes, papillomatosis). H&E stain.
Genital warts, histopathologically, characteristically rise above the skin surface due to enlargement of the dermal papillae, have parakeratosis and the characteristic nuclear changes typical of HPV infections (nuclear enlargement with perinuclear clearing).

Prevention

Gardasil (sold by Merck & Co.) is a vaccine that protects against human papillomavirus types 16, 18, 6, and 11. Types 6 and 11 cause genital warts, while 16 and 18 cause cervical cancer. The vaccine is preventive, not therapeutic, and must be given before exposure to the virus type to be effective, ideally before the beginning of sexual activity. The vaccine is widely approved for use by young women, it is being tested for young men,[13][14] and has been approved for males in some areas, such as the UK, the US and Canada.

Management

There is no cure for HPV, but there are methods to treat visible warts, which could reduce infectivity, although there are no trials studying the effectiveness of removing visible warts in reducing transmission.[15] Every year, Americans spend $200 million on the treatment of genital warts.[16] Genital warts may disappear without treatment, but sometimes eventually develop a fleshy, small raised growth. There is no way to predict whether they will grow or disappear. Warts can sometimes be identified because they show up as white when acetic acid is applied, but this method is not recommended on the vulva because microtrauma and inflammation can also show up as acetowhite.[12] Magnifying glasses or colposcope may also be used to aid in identifying small warts.[12]
Depending on the sizes and locations of warts (as well as other factors), a doctor will offer one of several ways to treat them. Podofilox is the first-line treatment due to its low cost.[17] Almost all treatments can potentially cause depigmentation or scarring.[15]
  • A 0.15% – 0.5% podophyllotoxin (also called podofilox) solution in a gel or cream. Marketed as Condylox (0.5%), Wartec (0.15%) and Warticon (0.15%),[18] it can be applied by the patient to the affected area and is not washed off. It is the purified and standardized active ingredient of the podophyllin (see below). Podofilox is safer and more effective than podophyllin.[18] Skin erosion and pain are more commonly reported than with imiquimod and sinecatechins.[19] Its use is cycled (2 times per day for 3 days then 4–7 days off); one review states that it should only be used for four cycles.[20]
  • Imiquimod (Aldara) is a topical immune response cream, applied to the affected area. It causes less local irritation than podofilox but may cause fungal infections (11% in package insert) and flu-like symptoms (less than 5% disclosed in package insert).[19]
  • Sinecatechins (marketed as Veregen and Polyphenon E) is an ointment of catechins (55% epigallocatechin gallate[12]) extracted from green tea and other components. Mode of action is undetermined.[21] It appears to have higher clearance rates than podophyllotoxin and imiquimod and causes less local irritation, but clearance takes longer than with imiquimod.[19]
  • Liquid nitrogen cryosurgery is safe for pregnancy. It kills warts 71–79% of the time, but recurrence is 38% to 73% 6 months after treatment.[12] Local infections have been reported.[12]
  • Trichloroacetic acid (TCA) is less effective than cryosurgery,[20] and is not recommended for use in the vagina, cervix, or urinary meatus.[12]
  • Surgical excision is best for large warts, and has a greater risk of scarring.[15]
  • Laser ablation does not seem to be any more effective than other physician-applied methods,[3] but is often used as a last resort and is extremely expensive.[12]
  • A 20% podophyllin anti-mitotic solution, applied to the affected area and later washed off. However, this crude herbal extract is not recommended for use on vagina, urethra, perianal area, or cervix,[12] and must be applied by a physician.[18] Reported reactions include nausea, vomiting, fever, confusion, coma, renal failure, ileus, and leukopenia; death has been reported with extensive topical application, or application on mucous membranes.[12]
  • Interferon can be used; it is effective, but it is also expensive and its effect is inconsistent.[20]
  • Electrocauterization can be used; it is an older procedure but recovery time is generally longer. In severe cases of genital warts, treatment may require general or spinal anesthesia. This is a surgical procedure. More effective than cryosurgery and recurrence is at a much lower rate.
  • Oral Isotretinoin is a therapy that has proven effective in experimental use, but is rarely used due to potentially severe side effects. In a small-scale study, low dose oral isotretinoin showed considerable efficacy and may represent an alternative systemic form of therapy for Genital Warts. Yet, albeit this indicative evidence not many studies have been conducted to further confirm the findings. In most countries this therapy is currently unapproved and only used as an alternative therapy if other therapies failed.[22]'[23]
Sex toys
  • A 5% 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) cream was used, but it is no longer considered an acceptable treatment due to the side-effects.[12]
Podophyllin, podofilox and Isotretinoin should not be used during pregnancy, as they could cause birth defects in the fetus.

Epidemiology

Genital HPV infections have an estimated prevalence in the US of 10–20% and clinical manifestations in 1% of the sexually active adult population.[20] US incidence of HPV infection has increased between 1975 and 2006.[20] About 80% of those infected are between the ages of 17–33.[20] Although treatments can remove the warts, they do not remove the HPV, so warts can recur after treatment (about 50–73% of the time[24]). Warts can also spontaneously regress (with or without treatment).[20]
Traditional theories postulated that the virus remained in the body for a lifetime. However, new studies using sensitive DNA techniques have shown that through immunological response the virus can either be cleared or suppressed to levels below what polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests can measure. One study testing genital skin for subclinical HPV using PCR found a prevalence of 10%.[20]

References

  1. ^ a b http://www.webmd.com/sexual-conditions/hpv-genital-warts/hpv-virus-information-about-human-papillomavirus
  2. ^ http://www.aad.org/public/publications/pamphlets/viral_genital.html
  3. ^ a b O'Mahony C (2005). "Genital warts: current and future management options". Am J Clin Dermatol 6 (4): 239–243. PMID 16060711.
  4. ^ http://www.mckinley.illinois.edu/Handouts/genital_warts.html
  5. ^ http://96.10.7.92/hpv_diagnosing.shtml
  6. ^ http://dermatology.cdlib.org/126/original/HPV/payal.html
  7. ^ http://www.cdc.gov/std/hpv/stdfact-hpv.htm
  8. ^ http://www.cancerhelp.org.uk/type/cervical-cancer/about/cervical-cancer-risks-and-causes#hpv
  9. ^ http://brown.edu/Student_Services/Health_Services/Health_Education/sexual_health/sexually_transmitted_infections/hpv.php
  10. ^ Genkins, Gill. "Genital warts". BBC. Retrieved 17 November 2011.
  11. ^ "American Cancer Society: "Can Anal Cancer Be Prevented?"". Retrieved 2008-09-10.[dead link]
  12. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Mayeaux EJ, Dunton C (July 2008). "Modern management of external genital warts". J Low Genit Tract Dis 12 (3): 185–192. doi:10.1097/LGT.0b013e31815dd4b4. PMID 18596459.
  13. ^ Cortez, Michelle Fay and Pettypiece, Shannon. "Merck Cancer Shot Cuts Genital Warts, Lesions in Men". Bloomberg News. (Bloomberg.com) 13 Nov 2008.
  14. ^ HPV Vaccine Gardasil May Help Boys, Men by WebMD Health News, Nov 13, 2008
  15. ^ a b c Kodner CM, Nasraty S (December 2004). "Management of genital warts". Am Fam Physician 70 (12): 2335–2342. PMID 15617297.
  16. ^ "STI Awareness: Genital Warts". Planned Parenthood Advocates of Arizona. 2012-04-18. Retrieved 2012-04-20.
  17. ^ Fox PA, Tung MY (2005). "Human papillomavirus: burden of illness and treatment cost considerations". Am J Clin Dermatol 6 (6): 365–381. PMID 16343025.
  18. ^ a b c von Krogh G, Longstaff E (December 2001). "Podophyllin office therapy against condyloma should be abandoned". Sex Transm Infect 77 (6): 409–412. doi:10.1136/sti.77.6.409. PMC 1744412. PMID 11714936.
  19. ^ a b c Meltzer SM, Monk BJ, Tewari KS (March 2009). "Green tea catechins for treatment of external genital warts". Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 200 (3): 233.e1–7. doi:10.1016/j.ajog.2008.07.064. PMID 19019336.
  20. ^ a b c d e f g h Scheinfeld N, Lehman DS (2006). "An evidence-based review of medical and surgical treatments of genital warts". Dermatol. Online J. 12 (3): 5. PMID 16638419.
  21. ^ "Veragen package insert" (PDF). Retrieved 2008-08-18.[dead link]
  22. ^ S Georgala, A C Katoulis, C Georgala, E Bozi, A Mortakis (November 2004). "Oral isotretinoin in the treatment of recalcitrant condylomata acuminata of the cervix: a randomised placebo controlled trial". Sex Transm Infect 80 (3): 216–218. doi:10.1136/sti.2003.006841. PMC 1744851. PMID 15170007.
  23. ^ Virendra N. Sehgal MD, Govind Srivastava MD, Kabir Sardana MD (May 2006). "Isotretinoin – unapproved indications/uses and dosage: a physician's reference". International Journal of Dermatology 45 (6): 772–777. doi:10.1111/j.1365-4632.2006.02830.x. PMID 16796650.
  24. ^ CDC. (2004). REPORT TO CONGRESS: Prevention of Genital Human Papillomavirus Infection.

External links

Monday, October 8, 2012

Sex salve

Sexual slavery

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
(Redirected from Sex slave)
Jump to: navigation, search
Sexual slavery is the slavery of unwilling people who are coerced into that condition for sexual exploitation. The incidence of sexual slavery by country has been studied and tabulated by UNESCO, with the cooperation of various international agencies.[1] Sexual slavery may include single-owner sexual slavery, ritual slavery sometimes associated with certain religious practices[citation needed], slavery for primarily non-sexual purposes but where non-consensual sex is common, or forced prostitution. The Vienna Declaration and Programme of Action calls for an international response in order to attempt to eradicate sexual slavery on the basis that it is a human rights issue.

Contents

Definition of sexual slavery

According to the Rome Statute (Article 7(2)(c)), sexual enslavement is the exercise of any or all of the powers attached to the "right of ownership" over a person. It may comprise repeated sexual abuse or rape by the captor or forcing the victim to provide sexual services to others, or both. The crime is a continuing offence. The Rome Statute's definition of sexual slavery includes situations where persons are forced into domestic servitude, marriage or any other forced labour that involves sexual activity, as well as the trafficking of persons for sexual purposes, frequently women and children.[2]

Sex trafficking

Sex trafficking is a type of Human trafficking involving the recruitment, transportation, transfer, harbour or receipt of persons, by coercive or abusive means for the purpose of sexual exploitation. Sex trafficking is not the only form of human trafficking and estimates vary as to the percentage of human trafficking which is for the purpose of transporting someone into sexual slavery.
The BBC News cited a report by UNODC as listing the most common destinations for victims of human trafficking in 2007 as Thailand and Japan.[3] The report lists Thailand, China, Nigeria, Albania, Bulgaria, Belarus, Moldova and Ukraine as major sources of trafficked persons.

Commercial sexual exploitation of children

Commercial sexual exploitation of children (CSEC) includes prostitution of children, child pornography, child sex tourism, trafficking of children for sexual purposes, or other forms of transactional sex with children. The Youth Advocate Program International (YAPI) describes CSEC as a form of coercion and violence against children and a contemporary form of slavery.[4][5]
A declaration of the World Congress Against the Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children, held in Stockholm in 1996, defined CSEC as, "sexual abuse by the adult and remuneration in cash or in kind to the child or to a third person or persons. The child is treated as a sexual object and as a commercial object".[5]

Child prostitution

The prostitution of children is a form of commercial sexual exploitation of children in which a child performs the services of prostitution, usually for the financial benefit of an adult.
India's federal police said in 2009 that they believed around 1.2 million children in India to be involved in prostitution.[6] A CBI statement said that studies and surveys sponsored by the Ministry of Women and Child Development estimated about 40% of India's prostitutes to be children.[6]
Thailand’s Health System Research Institute reported that children in prostitution make up 40% of prostitutes in Thailand.[7]
In some parts of the world, child prostitution is tolerated or ignored by the authorities. Reflecting an attitude which prevails in many developing countries, a judge from Honduras said, on condition of anonymity: "If the victim [the child prostitute] is older than 12, if he or she refuses to file a complaint and if the parents clearly profit from their child's commerce, we tend to look the other way".[8]

Child pornography

Child pornography, which has been called 'child abuse images'[9][10][11], refers to images or films depicting sexually explicit activities involving a child. As such, child pornography is a visual record of child sexual abuse.[12][13][14][15][16][17] Abuse of the child occurs during the sexual acts which are photographed in the production of child pornography,[12][13][15][16][17][18][19] and the effects of the abuse on the child (and continuing into maturity) are compounded by the wide distribution and lasting availability of the photographs of the abuse.[17][18][20]

Child sex tourism

Child sex tourism is a travel to a foreign country for the purpose of engaging in commercially facilitated child sexual abuse.[21] Child sex tourism results in both mental and physical consequences for the exploited children, that may include "disease (including HIV/AIDS), drug addiction, pregnancy, malnutrition, social ostracism, and possibly death", according to the State Department of the United States.[21] Thailand, Cambodia, India, Brazil and Mexico have been identified as leading hotspots of child sexual exploitation.[22]

Forced prostitution

Most, if not all, forms of forced prostitution may be viewed as a kind of sexual slavery.[23] The terms "forced prostitution" or "enforced prostitution" appear in international and humanitarian conventions but have been insufficiently understood and inconsistently applied. "Forced prostitution" generally refers to conditions of control over a person who is coerced by another to engage in sexual activity.[24]
The issue of consent in prostitution is a hotly debated issue. Opinion in places like Europe has been divided over the question of whether prostitution itself should be considered as a free choice or as inherently exploitative of women.[25] The law in Sweden, Norway and Iceland – where it is illegal to pay for sex, but not to sell sexual services – is based on the notion that all forms of prostitution are inherently exploitative, opposing the notion that prostitution can be voluntary.[26] In contrast, prostitution is a recognized profession in countries such as Netherlands and Germany.
In 1949 the UN General Assembly adopted the Convention for the Suppression of the Traffic in Persons and of the Exploitation of the Prostitution of Others (the 1949 Convention). The 1949 Convention supersedes a number of earlier conventions that covered some aspects of forced prostitution. Signatories are charged with three obligations under the 1949 Convention: prohibition of trafficking, specific administrative and enforcement measures, and social measures aimed at trafficked persons. The 1949 Convention presents two shifts in perspective of the trafficking problem in that it views prostitutes as victims of the procurers, and in that it eschews the terms "white slave traffic" and "women," using for the first time race- and gender-neutral language.[27] Article 1 of the 1949 Convention provides punishment for any person who "[p]rocures, entices or leads away, for purposes of prostitution, another person" or "[e]xploits the prostitution of another person, even with the consent of that person." To fall under the provisions of the 1949 Convention, the trafficking need not cross international lines.[27]

Crime against humanity

The Rome Statute Explanatory Memorandum, which defines the jurisdiction of the International Criminal Court, recognizes rape, sexual slavery, forced prostitution, forced pregnancy, forced sterilization, "or any other form of sexual violence of comparable gravity" as crime against humanity if the action is part of a widespread or systematic practice.[28][29] Sexual slavery was first recognized as a crime against humanity when the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia issued arrest warrants based on the Geneva Conventions and Violations of the Laws or Customs of War. Specifically, it was recognised that Muslim women in Foča (southeastern Bosnia and Herzegovina) were subjected to systematic and widespread gang rape, torture and sexual enslavement by Bosnian Serb soldiers, policemen, and members of paramilitary groups after the takeover of the city in April 1992.[30] The indictment was of major legal significance and was the first time that sexual assaults were investigated for the purpose of prosecution under the rubric of torture and enslavement as a crime against humanity.[30] The indictment was confirmed by a 2001 verdict by the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia that rape and sexual enslavement are crimes against humanity. This ruling challenged the widespread acceptance of rape and sexual enslavement of women as intrinsic part of war.[31] The International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia found three Bosnian Serb men guilty of rape of Bosniac (Bosnian Muslim) women and girls – some as young as 12 and 15 years of age – in Foča, eastern Bosnia and Herzegovina. The charges were brought as crimes against humanity and war crimes. Furthermore two of the men were found guilty of the crime against humanity of sexual enslavement for holding women and girls captive in a number of de facto detention centers. Many of the women had subsequently disappeared.[31]

Sexual slavery during armed conflict and war

Rangoon, Burma. August 8, 1945. A young ethnic Chinese woman who was in one of the Imperial Japanese Army's "comfort battalions" is interviewed by an Australian Allied officer.
Rape and sexual violence have accompanied warfare in virtually every known historical era.[32] Before the 19th century, military circles supported the notion that all persons, including unarmed women and children, were still the enemy, with the belligerent (nation or person engaged in conflict) having conquering rights over them.[33] "To the victor goes the spoils" has been a war cry for centuries and women were included as part of the spoils of war.[34] Institutionalised sexual slavery and enforced prostitution have been documented in a number of wars, most notably the Second World War.

Japan during World War II

"Comfort women" are a widely publicised example of sexual slavery. The term is a euphemism for the 200,000 women who served in the Japanese army's camps during World War II. Historians and researchers have stated that the majority were from Korea, China, and other occupied territories part of the Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere, and were recruited by kidnapping or deception to serve as sex slaves.[35][36][37][38] Many women were raped to the point of death or killed by torture, such as having their breasts sliced off or having their abdomens slit open.[39] Each slave was reportedly raped "an average of 10 rapes per day (considered by some to be a low estimate), for a five day work week; this figure can be extrapolated to estimate that each 'comfort girl' was raped around 50 times per week or 2,500 times per year. For three years of service – the average – a comfort girl would have been raped 7,500 times." (Parker 1995 United Nations Commissions on Human Rights)[40]

Germany during World War II

During World War II, Germany established brothels in the concentration camps for the sexual gratification of collaborating prisoners (Lagerbordell). The women forced to work in the concentration camp brothels came from the Ravensbrück concentration camp,[41] Soldier's brothels (Wehrmachtsbordell) were usually organized in already established whorehouses or in hotels confiscated by the Germans. The leaders of the Wehrmacht became interested in running their own brothels when sexual disease spread among the soldiers. In the controlled brothels, the women frequently had a medical check for sexually transmittable diseases.
It is estimated that a minimum of 34,140 women from occupied states worked as prostitutes during the Third Reich.[42] In Eastern Europe the local women were often forced into prostitution.[43] On 3 May 1941 the Foreign Ministry of the Polish government-in-exile issued a document describing the mass raids made in Polish cities with the aim of capturing young women, who later were forced to work in brothels attended by German soldiers and officers.[43] There were often escape attempts, with at least one mass escape known to have been attempted by women in Norway.[43]

Bride kidnapping and raptio

Rape of the Sabine Women, by Nicolas Poussin, Rome, 1637–38 (Louvre Museum)
Bride kidnapping, also known as marriage by abduction or marriage by captive, is a form of forced marriage practised in some traditional cultures. Bride kidnapping has reportedly occurred in countries spanning Central Asia, the Caucasus region, parts of Africa, and among the Hmong in southeast Asia, the Tzeltal in Mexico, and the Romani in Europe.[citation needed] Though the motivations behind bride kidnapping vary by region, the cultures with traditions of marriage by abduction are generally patriarchal with a strong social stigma on sex or pregnancy outside of marriage and illegitimate births.[44] In some cases, the couple collude together to elope under the guise of a bride kidnapping, presenting their parents with a fait accompli. In most cases, however, the men who resort to capturing a wife are often of lower social status, whether because of poverty, disease, poor character or criminality.[45] These men are sometimes deterred from legitimately seeking a wife because of the payment the woman's family expects, the bride price (not to be confused with a dowry, paid by the woman's family).[46]
Bride kidnapping is distinguished from raptio in that the former refers to the abduction of one woman by one man (and/or his friends and relatives), and is often a widespread and ongoing practice, whereas the latter refers to the largescale abduction of women by groups of men, possibly in a time of war (see also war rape).[citation needed] The Latin term raptio refers to abduction of women, either for marriage (by kidnapping or elopement) or enslavement (particularly sexual slavery). In Roman Catholic canon law, raptio refers to the legal prohibition of matrimony if the bride was abducted forcibly (Canon 1089 CIC).
The practice of raptio is surmised to have existed since anthropological antiquity. In Neolithic Europe, excavation of a Linear Pottery culture site at Asparn-Schletz, Austria, unearthed the remains of numerous slain victims. Among them, young adult females and children were clearly under-represented, suggesting that perhaps the attackers had killed the men but abducted the young females.[47]

Contemporary sexual slavery

Official estimates of individuals in sexual slavery worldwide vary. In 2001 the International Organization for Migration estimated 400,000, the Federal Bureau of Investigation estimated 700,000 and UNICEF estimated 1.75 million.[48]

Europe

In Netherlands, the Bureau of the Dutch Rapporteur on Trafficking in Human Beings in 2005 estimated that there are from 1,000 to 7,000 trafficking victims a year. Most police investigations relate to legal sex businesses, with all sectors of prostitution being well represented, but with window brothels being particularly overrepresented.[49][50][51] Dutch news site Expatica reported that in 2008, there were 809 registered trafficking victims in the Netherlands; out of those 763 were women and at least 60 percent of them were reportedly forced to work in the sex industry. Of reported victims, those from Hungary were all female and all forced into prostitution.[52][53]
In Germany, the trafficking of women from Eastern Europe is often organized by people from that same region. German authorities identified 676 sex-trafficking victims in 2008, compared with 689 in 2007.[54] The German Federal Police Office BKA reported in 2006 a total of 357 completed investigations of human trafficking, with 775 victims. Thirty-five percent of the suspects were Germans born in Germany and 8% were German citizens born outside of Germany.[55]
In Greece, according to NGO estimates in 2008, there may be a total 13,000–14,000 trafficking victims of all types in the country at any given time. Major countries of origin for trafficking victims brought into Greece include Nigeria, Ukraine, Russia, Bulgaria, Albania, Moldova, Romania, and Belarus.[56]
In Switzerland, the police estimated in 2006 that there may be between 1,500 and 3,000 victims of all types of human trafficking. The organizers and their victims generally come from Hungary, Slovakia, Romania, Ukraine, Moldova, Lithuania, Brazil, the Dominican Republic, Thailand and Cambodia, and, to a lesser extent, Africa.[57]
In Belgium, in 2007, prosecutors handled a total of 418 trafficking cases, including 219 economic exploitation and 168 sexual exploitation cases. In the same year, the federal judicial police handled 196 trafficking files, compared with 184 in 2006. In 2007 the police arrested 342 persons for smuggling and trafficking-related crimes.[58] A recent report by RiskMonitor foundation estimated that 70% of the prostitutes who work in Belgium are from Bulgaria.[59]
In Austria, Vienna has the largest number of reported trafficking cases, although trafficking is also a problem in urban centers such as Graz, Linz, Salzburg, and Innsbruck. The NGO Lateinamerikanische Frauen in Oesterreich–Interventionsstelle fuer Betroffene des Frauenhandels (LEFOE-IBF) reported assisting 108 victims of all types of human trafficking in 2006, down from 151 in 2005.[60]
In Spain, in 2007, officials identified 1,035 sex trafficking victims and 445 labor trafficking victims.[61]

Africa

In Africa the colonial powers abolished slavery in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. However, in areas outside their jurisdiction, such as the Mahdist empire in Sudan, the practice continued to thrive. Now, institutional slavery has been banned worldwide, but there are numerous reports of women sex slaves in areas without effective government control, such as Sudan,[62] Liberia,[63] Sierra Leone,[64] northern Uganda,[65] Congo,[66] Niger[67] and Mauritania.[68] In Ghana, Togo, and Benin, a form of religious prostitution known as trokosi ("ritual servitude") forcibly keeps thousands of girls and women in traditional shrines as "wives of the gods", where priests perform the sexual function in place of the gods.[69]

Asia

In January 2010, the supreme court of India stated that India is "becoming a hub" for largescale child prostitution rackets, and suggested the setting up of a special investigating agency to tackle the growing problem.[70]
An article about the Rescue Foundation in New Internationalist magazine states that "according to Save the Children India, clients now prefer 10- to 12-year-old girls". The same article attributes the rising number of prostitutes believed to have contracted HIV in India’s brothels as a factor in India becoming the country with the second-largest number of people living with HIV/AIDS in the world, behind South Africa.[71]
In 2007, the Ministry of Women and Child Development estimated that there are around 2.8 million sex workers in India, with 35.47 percent of them entering the trade before the age of 18 years.[72][73] The number of prostitutes has also doubled in the recent decade.[74] One news article states that an estimated 200,000 Nepalese girls have been trafficked to red light areas of India.[75] Nepalese women and girls, especially virgins, are reportedly favoured in India because of their fair skin and young looks.[76][77] One report estimates that every year between 5,000 and 7,000 Nepalese girls are trafficked into the red light districts in Indian cities, and that many of the girls may only be 9 or 10 years old.[78]
In Pakistan, young girls have been sold by their families to big-city brothel owners. Often this happens due to poverty or debt, whereby the family has no other way to raise the money than to sell the young girl.[79] Cases have also been reported where wives and sisters have been sold to brothels to raise money for gambling, drinking or drug addictions. Sex slaves are reportedly also bought by 'agents' in Afghanistan who trick young girls into coming to Pakistan for well-paying jobs. Once in Pakistan they are taken to brothels (called Kharabat) and forced into sexual slavery, some for many years.[80][81]
In Thailand, the Health System Research Institute reported in 2005 that children in prostitution make up 40% of Thailand's prostitutes,[7] and that a proportion of prostitutes over the age of 18, including foreign nationals mostly from Burma, China's Yunnan province, Laos and Cambodia, are also in some state of forced sexual servitude.[82] The Tourism Police Bureau in 1997 stated that there were 500 Chinese and 200 European women in prostitution in Bangkok, many of whom entered Thailand illegally, often through Burma and Laos. Earlier reports, however, suggest different figures. (Police Colonel Sanit Meephan, deputy chief of Tourism Police Bureau, "Thailand popular haunt for foreign prostitues," The Nation, 15 January 1997)
The trafficking in Persons Report of 2007 from the US Department of State says that sexual slavery exists in the Arab states of the Persian Gulf, where women and children may be trafficked from the post-Soviet states, Eastern Europe, Far East, Africa, South Asia or other parts of the Middle East.[83][84][85]

United States

The San Francisco Chronicle reported in 2006 that in the 21st century, women, mostly from South America, Southeast Asia, and the former Soviet Union, are trafficked into the United States for the purposes of sexual slavery.[86] A 2006 ABC News story stated that, contrary to existing misconceptions, American citizens may also be coerced into sex slavery.[87]
In 2001 the United States State Department estimated that 50,000 to 100,000 women and girls are trafficked each year into the United States. In 2003, the State Department report estimated that a total of 18,000 to 20,000 individuals were trafficked into the United States for either forced labor or sexual exploitation. The June 2004 report estimated the total trafficked annually at between 14,500 and 17,500.[88] The Bush administration set up 42 Justice Department task forces and spent more than $150 million on attempts to reduce human trafficking. However, in the seven years since the law was passed, the administration has identified only 1,362 victims of human trafficking brought into the United States since 2000, nowhere near the 50,000 or more per year the government had estimated.[89]
The Girl’s Education & Mentoring Services (GEMS), an organization based in New York, claims that the majority of girls in the sex trade were abused as children. Poverty and a lack of education play major roles in the lives of many women in the sex industry. According to a report conducted by the University of Pennsylvania, anywhere from 100,000 up to 300,000 American children at any given time may be at risk of exploitation due to factors such as drug use, homelessness, or other factors connected with increased risk for commercial sexual exploitation.[90] However, the report emphasized, “The numbers presented in these exhibits do not, therefore, reflect the actual number of cases of CSEC in the United States but, rather, what we estimate to be the number of children ‘at risk’ of commercial sexual exploitation.”
The 2010 Trafficking in Persons report described the United States as, "a source, transit, and destination country for men, women, and children subjected to trafficking in persons, specifically forced labor, debt bondage, and forced prostitution." [91]
Sexual slavery in the United States may occur in multiple forms and in multiple venues. Sex trafficking in the United States may be present in Asian massage parlors, Mexican cantina bars, residential brothels, or street-based pimp-controlled prostitution. There is currently a debate among the anti-trafficking community in the United States over the extent of sexual slavery. Some groups arguing that exploitation is inherent in the act of commercial sex, while other groups take a stricter approach to defining sexual slavery, considering an element of force, fraud or coercion to be necessary for sex slavery to exist.
The prostitutes in illegal massage parlors may be forced to work out of apartment complexes for many hours a day.[92] Many clients may not realize that some of the women who work in these massage sex parlors are actually forced in prostitution.[92] The women may initially be lured into the US under false pretenses. In huge debt to their 'owners', they are then forced to earn enough to eventually buy their freedom.[92] In some cases women who have been sex trafficked may have to undergo plastic surgery or even forced abortions.[93] An article in the Berkeley University Press reports that human trafficking and sexual enslavement are not limited to any specific location or social class, and concludes that there is a strong reliance on individuals to report suspicious behavior, because the psychological and physical abuse occurs which can often leave a victim unable to escape on their own.[94]
In 2000 Congress created the Victims of Trafficking and Violence Protection Act with tougher punishments for sex traffickers and also the creation of the possibility for former sex slaves to obtain a T-1 visa.[92] To obtain the visa women must, "prove they were enslaved by 'force, fraud or coercion'."[92] The visa allows former victims of sex trafficking to stay in the United States for 3 years and then apply for a green card.[92]
In the United States the Fundamentalist Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints has also been implicated in the trafficking of underage women across state and international boundaries (US/Canada). In most cases, this is for the continuation of polygamous practices, in the form of plural marriage.[95][96]

Historical sexual slavery

White slavery

The Slave Market (c. 1884), painting by Jean-Léon Gérôme, an Orientalist conception of the Arab sex slave market.
The phrase "white slavery" can be dated back at least to Hannah Moore's[97] 1804 letter[98] to the editor of the Christian Observer and again in "A Letter on the Horrors of White Slavery" by Richard Oastler.[99] In English-speaking countries in the 19th and early 20th centuries, the phrase "white slavery" was used to refer to sexual enslavement of white women. It was particularly associated with orientalist accounts of women enslaved in Middle Eastern harems, such as the so-called Circassian beauties.[100] The phrase gradually came to be used as a euphemism for prostitution[citation needed]. The phrase was especially common in the context of the exploitation of minors, with the implication that children and young women in such circumstances were not free to decide their own fate.
Statue entitled "The White Slave" by Abastenia St. Leger Eberle, a controversial sculpture meant to depict modern western sexual enslavement.
In Victorian Britain, campaigning journalist William Thomas Stead, (editor of the Pall Mall Gazette) procured a 13 year-old girl for £5, an amount then equal to a labourer's monthly wage (see the Eliza Armstrong case). Panic over the "traffic in women" rose to a peak in England in the 1880s. At the time, "white slavery" was a natural target for defenders of public morality and crusading journalists. The ensuing outcry led to the passage of antislavery legislation in Parliament.
Meanwhile in Argentina, the criminal organization Zwi Migdal operated in white slavery and prostitution from the 1860s until 1939.
Parliament passed the 1885 Criminal Law Amendment Act, raising the age of consent from thirteen to sixteen in that year.[101]
The Merchant's Pearl (c. 1884)
A subsequent scare occurred in the United States in the early twentieth century, peaking in 1910, when Chicago's U.S. attorney announced (without giving details) that an international crime ring was abducting young girls in Europe, importing them, and forcing them to work in Chicago brothels. These claims, and the panic they inflamed, led to the passage of the United States White-Slave Traffic Act of 1910. It also banned the interstate transport of females for immoral purposes. Its primary intent was to address prostitution and immorality. The act is better known as the Mann Act, after James Robert Mann, an American lawmaker.[102]
Chinese immigrants in the U.S. were singled out as white slavers, although any such activity was restricted to the criminal segment of the Chinese community. As an example of this in American culture, the musical comedy Thoroughly Modern Millie features a Chinese-run prostitution ring, which is specifically referred to as "white slavery". The gangster movie Prime Cut has mid-West white slaves sold like cattle.

Arab slave trade

Slave trade, including trade of sex slaves,[103] fluctuated in certain regions in the Middle East up until the twentieth century.[104] These slaves came largely from Sub-Saharan Africa (mainly Zanj), the Caucasus (mainly Circassians),[105] Central Asia (mainly Turks), and Central and Eastern Europe (mainly Saqaliba).[106] The Barbary pirates also captured 1.25 million slaves from Western Europe between the sixteenth and nineteenth centuries.[107][108]
In contrast to the Atlantic slave trade where the male-female ratio was 2:1 or 3:1, the Arab slave trade usually had a higher female:male ratio instead, suggesting a general preference for female slaves. Concubinage and reproduction served as incentives for importing female slaves (often Caucasian), though many were also imported mainly for performing household tasks.[109]

Asia

In the 16th and 17th centuries, Portuguese visitors and their South Asian lascar (and sometimes African) crewmembers often engaged in slavery in Japan, where they bought or captured young Japanese women and girls, who were either used as sexual slaves on their ships or taken to Macau and other Portuguese colonies in Southeast Asia, the Americas,[110] and India.[111] For example, in Goa, a Portuguese colony in India, there was a community of Japanese slaves and traders during the late 16th and 17th centuries.[110][111]
In the 19th and early 20th centuries, there was a network of Chinese and Japanese prostitutes being trafficked across Asia, in countries such as China, Japan, Korea, Singapore and British India, in what was then known as the ’Yellow Slave Traffic’. There was also a network of prostitutes from continental Europe being trafficked to India, Ceylon, Singapore, China and Japan at around the same time, in what was then known as the ’White Slave Traffic’.[112]
During World War II, Japanese soldiers engaged in sexual slavery during their invasions across East Asia and Southeast Asia. The term "comfort women" is a euphemism for the estimated 200,000, mostly Korean, Chinese, and Filipino women who were forced into prostitution in Japanese military brothels during World War II.[113]

 Sexual slavery in the United States

Paramour rights

The term paramour rights refers to the American practice of a white man taking a black woman to whom he was not married as his concubine. The term "paramour rights" was first used by Zora Neale Hurston.[citation needed] The practice began prior to the Civil War and was reinforced afterward by anti-miscegenation laws, which prohibited interracial marriage between whites and non-whites. Hurston first wrote about the practice in her anthropological studies of the turpentine camps of North Florida in the 1930s.[citation needed] She believed that the death knell of paramour rights was sounded by the trial of Ruby McCollum, a black woman who murdered her white lover, Dr. C. Leroy Adams, in Live Oak, Florida, in 1952.[citation needed] McCollum's trial was covered by Hurston for the Pittsburgh Courier.